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15 Blockchain Programming Languages to Learn in 2020

By Chirag Bhardwaj
October 7, 2019 2. min read
Last update on: April 15, 2021

Unless you are living under the rocks, it is likely that you would be familiar with what is Blockchain and what is its potential when it comes to reforming the tech world. 

The technology, that have been the driving force of Cryptocurrencies, has taken the front seat and come up with a myriad of options to mitigate the traditional challenges that a myriad of industries face, helping them grab better opportunities. It has proven to hold the potential to revamp the whole economy – be it healthcare, travel, education, or legal domain.

A ripple impact of which is that today, both startups and Fortune 500 companies like IBM, and Accenture are putting efforts towards making their presence known in the Blockchain arena. 

Because of this, rather sudden, mass adoption, the number of Blockchain jobs are increasing in the market exponentially. A clear indication of which is that a 517% rise is predicted in the number of Blockchain jobs in 2019, compared to 2018.

And, behind the curtains, the type of blockchain development platforms and programming languages are also evolving. While many traditional ones are proving to be undisputed leaders, many new entrants are bringing radical changes in the development environment.

This, as a whole, is making it necessary for all Blockchain enthusiasts to be familiar with the best Blockchain programming languages to headstart with. Something we will cover in this article. 

But, before that, you will be able to earn brownie points if to go through a blockchain development guide to have a clarity of concepts, and to get familiar with the challenges developers come across while starting their journey in  this innovative technology.

Challenges You Might Face While Entering the Blockchain Development World

A. Resource Management

In the Blockchain arena, it is imperative for developers to ensure that they are familiar with real-time network demands and that they are well-versed with opportunities to handle remote and local queries. This, in turn, can be challenging for them to manage their resources efficiently and effectively.

B. Isolation

Another issue faced by Blockchain developers is that all the hash functions operate in a deterministic manner. Meaning, they do not act in two different ways depending on the circumstances.

In such a scenario, the development team has to opt Isolation mechanism to bring non-deterministic nature into their blockchain solution.

C. Lower Performance

Last but not least, Lower performance is also one of the challenges of Blockchain programming that developers often have to deal with. Especially when choosing the right Blockchain development language

This is because some of the Blockchain operations are parallelizable, while others are not. Meaning, it becomes important for them to bring a language on table that is versatile in nature.

Now that you know what Blockchain programming problems you might encounter while heading your journey to Blockchain development, let’s jump to the core part of this article, i.e, unveiling of the top Blockchain programming languages.

15 Programming Languages to Consider for Developing Blockchain Applications

1. Solidity


Influenced from JavaScript, Powershell, and C++, Solidity is the first blockchain programming language that one must learn. Especially when they have to develop dApps or are looking to get into the ICO development game.

The Solidity programming language was developed by Vitalik Buterin, the mastermind behind Ethereum, and serves blockchain development firm with a myriad of benefits, such as:-

  • Developer-friendliness,
  • Accessibility to JavaScript infrastructures, debuggers, and other tools, 
  • Statically typed programming, 
  • Possibility of inheritance properties in smart contracts,
  • Precise accuracy, etc.

2. Java


Java, the official language of Android mobile app development and a preferred option for backend development, is also considered a great programming language used for Blockchain development.

The language is derived from C-syntax and is widely chosen for building sophisticated Smart contracts and dApps because of its following properties:-

  • Robust support for OOP (Object-Oriented Programming) methodology,
  • Ease of memory cleaning,
  • Availability of ample of libraries.

Some of the best examples of Blockchain solutions developed using Java are NEM, IOTA, NEO, and Hyperledger Fabric.

3. Python


Python has not only ruled the world of app development, IoT app development, and network servers’ development, but is also proving to be an asset in Blockchain-as-a-service arena.

The language, created in 1991, is widely used for dApps and Smart Contracts development because of ample of features it avails. Some of those features and functionalities are:-

  • Easy to learn,
  • Access to dynamic architecture,
  • Perfect for both base and scripting approaches,
  • Open-source support,
  • Efficient for Prototyping, etc.

Steem, Hyperledger Fabric, and NEO are a few popular Python based Blockchain projects that are prevailing the industry.

4. JavaScript


Considered for a wide range of app and game development needs, JavaScript is also one of the best Blockchain programming languages to keep an eye on.

The language, in the form of frameworks like Node.js framework, offers developers ample of benefits like:-

  • Easier and earlier entry to market,
  • Enhanced Scalability, 
  • Availability of multiple JavaScript frameworks
  • No hassle of integration of respective resources, and more.

5. PHP


Released in 1995, PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is another programming language that every reputed mobile app development company recommend for creating Blockchain solutions. 

The language, though considered as a backend development tech stack in the form of best PHP frameworks, is often used to develop blockchain solutions of different complexity range. Something that is a ripple effect of its huge open-source community and object-oriented features.

6. C++


C++, introduced back in 1985 by Bjarne Stroustrup, is the best programming language for cryptocurrency development. 

The language follows OOPs methodology and is highly used for developing cryptocurrencies and Blockchain Projects like Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple, Stellar, and EOS. Something that is a direct result of the following set of features and functionalities it offers:-

    1. Efficient CPU management and memory control,
    2. Ease of running parallel/non-parallel threads,
    3. Option to move semantics for copying data effectively, 
    4. Compile-time polymorphism for enhanced performance, 
    5. Code isolation for different data structures, and more.

7. C#


Created by Microsoft as a substitute of Java, the OOP language offer a huge number of features for enterprise-powered apps, cloud, and cross-platform development. The language comes loaded with features of C, SQL, and .NET frameworks, and is highly favored for Blockchain development because:-

    1. It is open source.
    2. Its syntax is easy to understand and learn – thanks to its identicality with C++ and Java.
    3. It empowers developers to write portable code across devices.
    4. It is cost-effective to use because of BizSpark program.

The programming language is majorly considered for building dApps, Smart Contracts, and infrastructure in Blockchain environment.

8. Go


Go programming language also lands in the list of top Blockchain coding languages with a blistering success. 

The language is not just easy to comprehend, but also comes with the best features of JavaScript and Python such as user-friendliness, scalability, flexibility, and speed. Something that makes it the right option to deliver bespoke Blockchain solutions.

Two of the best Go-based Blockchain solutions prevalent in the market are Go-Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric.

9. Simplicity

Created by Russell O’ Connor, Simplicity is a high-level Blockchain coding language that hit the market in November 2017.


The Simplicity programming language is based on Ivy and work with a Haskell-like syntax which makes coding easier and effective. Besides, it is highly mathematical in nature and makes the codeline human-readable. Because of which, it is highly used for developing Smart Contracts and blockchain solutions that works with both Bitcoin and Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM). 

10. Ruby


Ruby is yet another top Blockchain development language to headstart your career with.

Developed by Yukihiro “Matz” in the mid-1990s, this high-level and general purpose programming language empowers developers to prototype their vision effectively and effortlessly through open-source third party APIs and plugins. The language also gives developers an opportunity to mix its features with that of other languages to build an enhanced platform.

It is highly considered by Asian developers for building Blockchain-based software and platforms.

11. Rust


Though newbie in the Blockchain ecosystem, Rust is also being widely considered for building innovative, immutable, and secure solutions. 

The language enables open-source developers to create quick and effective Blockchain frameworks. It also serves them with highly-capable mechanism of managing mutable states, amazing code optimization, better memory options, and concurrency-based opportunities.

12. SQL


SQL (Structured Query Language) is also one of the top blockchain programming languages to consider in 2020. 

The language was designed by IBM to make communication with databases like MySQL, SQL Server, PostgreSQl, and Oracle easier and efficient. It has more than 7M developers in the industry and is used for building secure and effective enterprise solutions in Blockchain domain. A clear evidence of which is Aergo.

13. Erlang


Erlang is another top Blockchain coding language you must consider for a brighter future ahead. 

The language, though less popular than reputed names like Java, JavaScript, and Python, serves Blockchain development companies with options like:-

    1. Unparalleled backend facility, 
    2. Higher scalability,
    3. Immutability
    4. Inherent fault tolerance, and more.

Something that makes it the right choice for building peer-to-peer networks in a Blockchain environment.

14. Rholang


Rholang is yet another impressive addition in the list of Blockchain programming languages. The language, unlike C++ or Python, operates with functional approach over Object-oriented. It also assess the whole app as a series of functions which are then solved in a sequential manner.

Because of this, it is a favorite of developers when they wish to build a high-level project like Smart Contracts.

15. CX

CX has also entered the list of top Blockchain programming languages

The language has the potential to work as a contractual digital intermediary, and comes loaded with features like simple error control process, and opportunity to use propelled cuts, pointers, and arrays. It also assembles over Go and give users an escape from executing discretionary codes, which has been a critical issue for present day businesses. 

What’s more, the language integrates with OpenGL (Open Graphics Library) efficiently and helps developers reap better benefits in terms of GPU’s capacity.

So, these were some of the programming languages that can be considered for entering the Blockchain world and make the best of the flourishing opportunity. These languages, as already covered in this article, holds different potential and thus, can be used for building different forms of Blockchain and cryptocurrency-based solutions. It implies that you must know which language is best for what type of Blockchain development and eventually, polish your skills in the same.

Now, while learning through online tutorials and training programs is a good effort to be well-versed with its theoretical concepts, if you wish to do some practical stuff under the shade of a reputed Blockchain development company, connect our recruitment team for an internship opportunity today.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Are Blockchain developers in demand?

Yes, blockchain developers are highly in demand. In fact, it has been found that the demand for Blockchain engineers this year is 517% more than what was recorded last year.

Q. How many Blockchain jobs are there in the market?

When it comes to the number of Blockchain jobs in the market, there are more than 4,065 and 5,711 Blockchain job listings on LinkedIn and Glassdoor, respectively.

Q. What do you need to learn in order to start developing on the blockchain?

Though the answer to this question is too vast, let us summarize in a few basic pointers:-

  • Strong knowledge of the basics of Blockchain development, i.e. its characteristics and popular platforms.
  • Awareness of the points of failure in the overall system.
  • Expertise at top Blockchain programming languages.
  • Familiarity with the popular cryptocurrencies and the concept of cryptocurrency mining.
  • A Background in web development, networking, and security.

Q. What language is Ethereum coded in?

Ethereum, which is currently in its 2.0 version, is coded in Go, C++, and Rust.

Q. What language is Bitcoin Blockchain written in?

The Bitcoin programming language, as per our experts is written in C++.

Q. What languages are needed to code the blockchain?

There are a heap of programming languages that can be used for Blockchain development. This includes primitive languages like C++, Java, JavaScript, and Python, and new entrants like Solidity, Simplicity, and CX.

Chirag Bhardwaj
Chirag Bhardwaj
Blockchain Evangelist
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